MLA Style Summary

SUMMARY OF MLA STYLE

(EDITED AS PER OUR REQUIREMENT)

Those who would write in Bangla are requested to follow this as a general guideline along with the additional note provided in a separate document.

  1. Formatting the Paper
  • Margins. 1” on all sides.
  • Font. Times New Roman 12 pt. is preferred.
  • Justification/Alignment. Do not justify text with the right margin. Most of the text is aligned left; the titles of the paper and of the works cited page are centered; the header is aligned right.
  • Line spacing. Double spaced.
  • Word and sentence spacing. Use a single space between every word and after the final punctuation mark of every sentence.
  • Heading. The first lines of the paper contain your name, the instructor’s name, the course number, and the date.
  • Title. The line after the heading is the title of your paper. It should be centered and typed in the regular style (not bold, italicized, or all capitals). For all titles used in the paper, capitalize the first word, last word, and all significant words (i.e., not articles, prepositions, or conjunctions).
  • Page header. Each page contains your last name followed by the page number in the upper right corner, ½” from the top of the page. Many instructors do not want the header on the first page.
  • Indentation. Indent the first word of a paragraph ½” from the left margin. Indent long quotations (more than 4 lines) 1” from the left margin. Citations on the Works Cited page use a ½” hanging indention; that is, the first line starts at the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented ½”.

 

  1.  Endnotes

Use content notes  as endnotes.

Content notes let an author present a useful digression that might otherwise disrupt the main theme of the text as an indented paragraph, marked with a superscript number in the text and note, with each numbered note starting a new paragraph. Notes are numbered consecutively through the text. Endnotes go before the list of works cited.

  1. Italics  
  • Use italics for the titles of books and the names of periodicals in your text and references.
  • Use italics for “words and letters that are referred to as words or letters” (Gibaldi 95). For example, write “The term American Indianis inclusive of over 500 Federally recognized ethnic communities.”
  • Use italics for non-English words or terms (and non-Bengali words or terms in Bengali papers) used in your text, except those words that have become incorporated in the language in which you are writing.
  • Emphasis may be added to a word or phrase in a quotation by placing it in italics. When this is done the note [emphasis added] or [italics added] must be inserted in brackets at the end of the quotation (within the quotation marks), or if the emphasis comes at the end of the sentence, in parentheses outside the quotation marks.

 

  1. Quotation Marks 

Use quotation marks for other than direct quotes only in the following circumstances:

  • “Place quotation marks around a word or phrase given in a special sense or purposefully misused” (Gibaldi 91). For example, The Population Council criticized the “outrageous” position of the Church on birth control.
  • Use quotation marks to enclose a translation of a non-English term (or non-Bengali term if your paper is in Bengali) in your text. Addis Ababa, the name of the capital of Ethiopia, is literally translated “new flower.”

 

  1.  Quotations 

Quotations must be placed in quotes or indented as a block quote. All quotations must include a citation referring the reader to the source document. As a matter of form, quotations should flow with your text, and may be edited to do so.

If you quote material that contains a citation to another work, include this citation in your quotation. The work cited does not have to be included in the list of works cited if it is cited only in the quotation.

  • When the author is introduced in the text the page number follows the quotation. Smith reported that “the creature walked like a duck and quacked like a duck” (23). Do not use the abbreviation “p.” or “P.” for “page” (nor “pp.” or “Pp.” for “pages”).
  • Without an introductory phrase, the author and page are placed together. For example—It was reported that “the creature walked like a duck and quacked like a duck” (Smith 23).
  • When citing a quote drawn from several pages in the source, separate page numbers in the citation with commas. For example, write (Thoreau, Walden23, 129-31, 144).
  • Block quotesare required with longer quotations, “more than four lines in your paper” (emphasis added) (Gibaldi 110).
  • Block quotes are continuously indented from the left margin one inch.
  • Double space within, before, and after a block quote, as with the rest of the text.
  • Do not place the quote inside quotation marks.
  • The first paragraph of a block quote—whether it was indented in the original or not—is not indented if only one paragraph is quoted.
  • But if two or more paragraphs are quoted, then all paragraphs begin with an indent—in addition to the one inch block quote indent—if they were indented in the original.
  • Paragraph indents in block quotes are one-quarter inch, half the standard indent.

Editing quotations.

Capitalization and punctuation may be freely changed to merge a quote into the text. Examples are drawn from the paragraph below.

Effective writing seeks to merge a quotation into the flow of the text. It is not necessary to indicate the minor changes needed to do so. The reader should not stumble over a quote. Edit a quotation according to the following rules.

  • If a quote begins in what is mid-sentence in the original, the first letter of the first word may be uppercased to open a sentence. “Merge quotations into the flow of the text.” Do not write “[M]erge quotations . . . .”
  • An introductory phrase may lead into a quote that starts with an uppercased letter in the original. This should be changed to a lowercased letter to match the syntax. It is not necessary to indicate this change. For example, the effective writer understands that “the reader should not stumble over a quote.”
  • The punctuation mark at the end of a quotation may be changed to fit the syntax without indicating the change in the text. For example, good writers caution that a “reader should not stumble over a quote!” But, “if the [original] quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point . . . the original punctuation is retained” (Gibaldi 120).
  • Double quotation marks may be changed to single quotation marks, and the reverse, without indicating the change.
  • It may be helpful to add text to merge a quote with the flow and tense of your text, to add emphasis, or to clarify the original. Brackets are required to indicate material or emphasis added to a quote. For example: “They [the Irish Republican Army] initiated a cease fire.”
  • Emphasis may be added to a word or phrase in a quotation by placing it in italics. When this is done the note (emphasis added) or (italics added) must be added after the quotation marks (see Gibaldi 118).

Correcting errors. Obvious typographical errors in a quotation may be corrected without making a special notation. But for an unusual word choice, concept, term, or spelling it may be appropriate to emphasize that the original is being quoted faithfully. This is done by inserting the Latin term sic (thus), in italics or underlined, in brackets within the quotation (but in parentheses at the end of a quote), immediately following the term. For example, “The ship struck an iceberg and floundered [sic], with the loss of all on board.” Or write “The ship struck an iceberg and floundered” (sic). (Note, to flounder is to thrash about wildly. To founder is to fill with water and sink.)

Deleting parts of quotes. Ellipsis points are used to indicate text omitted from a quotation.

Three ellipsis points (periods with a single space before, between, and after each period) indicate material has been omitted within a sentence or at the end of a sentence. Unless clarity demands it, do not use ellipsis points to begin a quotation. For example, Henry David Thoreau asserts:

“To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but to so love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust” (15, ch. 1).

An omission within the quote is edited:

“To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts,  .  .  .  but to so love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust” (Thoreau 15; ch. 1).

An omission at the end of a sentence is edited:

“To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but to so love wisdom as to live according to its dictates  .  .  . ” (Thoreau 15; ch. 1).

Deleting entire sentences. If the original text reads:

This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense, and imbibes delight through every pore. I go and come with a strange liberty in Nature, a part of herself. As I walk along the stony shore of the pond in my shirt-sleeves, though it is cool as well as windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me (Thoreau, Walden, 90; ch. 5).

Omitting a full sentence:

“This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense, and imbibes delight through every pore.  .  .  .  As I walk along the stony shore of the pond in my shirt-sleeves, though it is cool as well as windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me” (Thoreau 90).

Omitting the end of one sentence, and the next:

“This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense.  .  .  .   As I walk along the stony shore of the pond in my shirt-sleeves, though it is cool as well as windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me” (Thoreau 90).

Omitting text from the middle of one sentence to the middle of another:

“This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense,  .  .  .  though it is cool as well as windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me” (Thoreau 90).

Deleting the beginning of a sentence. General convention allows the leading portion of a sentence opening a quotation to be omitted from the quotation without indicating an omission as long as the original meaning is not marred.

  1.  Titles of Works & Headings (Capitalization) 

Generally, specific designations may be capitalized: the American West. But more general designations–or designations used as adjectives–are lowercased: The western United States, eastern Europe.

  • The names of ethnic or racial groups are capitalized if they represent a geographical region or language group. For example, Hispanic, Asian, African American, Appalachian.
  • Designations based only on color, direction, size, habitat, customs, or local usage are often lower cased.
  • Heading caps.“The rules for capitalizing are strict. In a title or subtitle, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms” (Gibaldi 103). These are commonly referred to as heading caps. Do not capitalize the following unless they begin a title or follow a colon:
  • Articles: a, an, the.
  • Prepositions: against, between, in, of , to.
  • Conjunctions: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet.
  • Infinitive: to.
  • Sentence capscapitalize just the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns in a heading or title.
  • Use heading caps for the titles of books and articles used in the text and in references.
  • Use heading caps for major headings in your paper (except run-in headings).
  • Use sentence caps for titles of most non-English works.
  • Use sentence caps for lower level run-in or paragraph subheadings.

 

  1. Citations in Your Paper

In the text of your paper you acknowledge the sources you used with a brief parenthetical citation that refers to an alphabetical Works Cited list at the end of the paper. Cite all direct quotations as well as significant ideas, concepts, or findings borrowed or adapted from others.

The brief citation should include just enough information for a reader to find the full citation in the list as well as a page number, if appropriate.

For example, if you are citing a fact found on page 359 of Up from History by Robert J. Norrell, the brief citation might be (Norrell 359); it might be (Norrell Up 359) if your list contains two books by Norrell.

A parenthetical citation in the text to refer readers to sources not directly cited in the text.  For example,

There are several popular style guides (e.g., APA Publication Manual, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian’s Manual for Writers).

It is generally not necessary to cite: (1) dictionary definitions of words unless the specific dictionary is relevant to the context; (2) well documented historical facts; (3) conventional knowledge or knowledge broadly shared in a discipline.

Each separate referent to a source must be cited however many times this may occur in a paper. A page number is usually cited only with a direct quotation unless the reader needs to be referred to an unusual concept or idea for possible verification.

An introductory phrase leads into a direct quotation by placing the author’s name in the text. The page citation in parentheses then follows the quotation. For example: Smith stated “now is the time to run for the gold” (123).

If there is no introductory phrase cite both the author and page in parentheses. For example: One expert observed that “the creature quacks like a duck” (Smith 123).

Citation Table: .

           

Research Citations: 

.

  1. No Author?Substitute the title of the work (title of an article or book) for the author in both the reference list and text citation. The first word in the citation must be the first significant word (ignore a, and, the) in the title as used to alphabetize the reference in the list of works cited. If the title is long use a short form or just the first word.
  2. Two or Three Authors.Cite both authors’ names: (Smith and Jones 123). When there are two or more authors with the same surname repeat the surname for each author. For example, write (Smithe, Smithe, and Smithe 123).
  3. Four or More Authors.You may cite the lead author plus et al. in all text citations (see Gibaldi 239). Be consistent in whatever practice you adopt, and consistent in matching the text citation with the entry in the reference list.
  4. Multiple sourcesare cited enclosed in a single set of parentheses. List sources alphabetically in the order they appear in the reference list. Each citation is separated by a semicolon. For example, write (Alt 12; Brown 23; Car 123; Dean 123–46; Smith 99).
  5. Multiple works by one authorrequire the short title of the specific work be added to the citation (See Gibaldi 251). For example, write (Thoreau, Walden 123) to contrast the source of a quote from another work by Thoreau (Thoreau, “Life Without Principle” 23).
  6. Corporate Author.To cite a corporate author use the full name of the group or institution as given in the reference list entry.

Literary Citations 

“In a reference to a classic prose work, such as a novel or play, that is available in several editions, it is helpful to provide more information than just the page number [. . .]” (Gibaldi 253). The objective is to help a reader with an edition different from the author’s to find the same passage.

Keep a distinction between prose books and plays and verse books, plays, and poems.

Prose works.

Prose works cite the page followed by a semicolon, then additional identifying information.

  • Cite the page followed by a semicolon, then additional identifying information. For example, in Walden Henry David Thoreau claimed “the mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation” (111; ch. 1). This same passage is found on different pages in other editions, but always in the first chapter (Thoreau 111; ch. 1).
  • Anthologies and other longer works often come in several volumes. “When citing a volume number as well as a page reference for a multivolume work, separate the two by a colon and a space: ‘(Wellek 2: 1–10)'” (Gibaldi 247).
  • When citing a specific page, the page number is understood to come after the volume. For example: “Few Moslems contemplate for the first time the Ka’abah [sic], without fear and awe: there is a popular jest against new comers, that they generally inquire the direction of prayer” (Burton 2: 161).
  • When citing an entire volume, add the abbreviation “vol.” to the citation. For example, in his Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah, he includes a detailed account of a clandestine visit to Mecca in 1853 (Burton, vol. 2).
  • When citing an entire volume with the reference in the text, spell out volume. For example, “Burton provides an exacting account of his clandestine visit to Mecca in volume 2 of Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah” (159–258).

 

Verse works

  • The following passage is from the Bible: “For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.” This is found in the book of Romans, Chapter 10, verse 13. MLA style cites this (Rom. 10.13).
  • The following passage is from the Merchant of Venice (MV). Shylock is speaking: “I’ll have my bond; speak not against my bond; I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond. . . .” MLA cites this (MV 3.3).
  1. Works Cited

Place references on a new page under the centered heading “Works Cited” (in heading caps one inch below the top of the page just inside the top margin). Continue the page numbering from the previous page. The list of works cited comes after the text and endnotes (if any); it is the last part of your paper.

Reference only what you cite in the text and cite in your text every entry in the reference list. Double space everything, including references.

Arrange references alphabetically by author, if there is no author by title (ignore A, An, The, and non-English equivalents).

Use a hanging indent, with the indent one-half inch from the left margin.

Give authors’ full names as indicated in the publication (do not abbreviate names to intials). Fill in full names for initials or a pseudonym [in square brackets] if the information is useful.

List up to three authors to a work; with four or more authors, note the first plus “et al.” if you wish (you may reference all authors, but you must cite them all in the text as well).

Multiple works by the same author list alphabetically by title, not by date. Put a three-em dash with three hyphens followed by a period. Use this “three-em dash” in place of the author’s name in subsequent works by the same exact author(s).

All titles are set in heading caps (in languages other than English use sentence caps as customary in that language). Titles of articles, reports, and chapters in edited books are placed in quotes. Titles of books and volumes, and the names of journals, are underlined or placed in italics.

  1.   Basic Rules for References
  • Titles of works that stand alone, (e.g., books, films, monographs, reports, webpages) are usually underlined (or placed in italics). The titles of works that are parts of something (e.g., books, journals, encyclopedias) are usually placed in quotation marks. For an uncommon sources, such as a personal interview, see the Handbook.
  • Use decimal notation to indicate number in a volume of a journal paged by issue, that is, write volume four, number two “4.2” not the more conventional format “4(2).”
  • Reprinted works require the original publication date as well as the date the reprint was published. The original publication date comes after the title.
  • The day-month-year format, 1 April 2010, is preferred.
  • Line wrap URLsby breaking them after a slash (or before a period). Do not insert a hyphen!
  • The medium of publication must be noted in all references (e.g., CD, PDF file, Print, Web).

Articles in Journals, Magazines, & Newspapers 

Research journals are typically paged consecutively from issue to issue—if the previous issue ended at page 101 the next would start at page 102. This makes it superfluous to reference the number of an issue in a volume, a volume typically being a year. Nonetheless, MLA style asks that you note the volume and issue number in all references using the decimal format unique to the style, volume.issue.

  • Double space references.
  • Article titles are in heading caps inside quotation marks. Languages not English use native capitalization.
  • The name of the periodical is in italics.
  • Cite the volume and issue for journals, just the date for newspapers and magazines.
  • Elide page number ranges, that is, drop digits when feasible. For example, write 1134-56 rather than 1134-1156.

Journal Articles

Dietler, Michael. “‘Our Ancestors the Gauls’: Archaeology, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Manipulation of Celtic Identity in Modern Europe.” American Anthropologist 96 (1994): 584–605.

Dumper, Michael. “Israeli Settlement in the Old City of Jerusalem.” Journal of Palestine Studies 21.4 (1992): 32-53. Print.

Solé, Yolanda. “Valores aspectuales en español.” Hispanic Linguistics 4.1 (1990): 57-85. Print.

Citations in the paper: (Dietler 123); (Dumper 123); (Solé 123); (Dietler 123; Dumper 123; Solé 123)

NB> If there are quotation marks in a title these are changed to single quotes. The article by Solé is in Spanish and is capitalized according to the conventions of that language. Several sources can be noted in a single citation, each separated by a semicolon.

Two Authors – Paged by Issue

Kelley, Klara, and Harris Francis. “Traditional Navajo Maps and ayfinding.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 29.2 (2005): 85-111. Print.

Citation: (Kelley and Francis 123)

Three Authors

Thwaites, Guy, Mark Taviner, and Vanya Grant. “The English Sweating Sickness 1485 to 1551.” New England Journal of Medicine 336.8 (1997): 1341-52. Print.

Citation: (Thwaites, Taviner, and Grant 123)

Four or More Authors – Annual Review

Rivara, Frederick P., et al. “Prevention of Bicycle-Related Injuries: Helmets, Education, and Legislation.” Annual Review of Public Health 19 (1998): 293-318. Print.

Citation: (Rivara et al. 123)

NB> When there are four or more authors you may list all authors or just the lead author, and others (et al.).

Corporate/Group Author (Magazine)

Editorial Staff of the Smithsonian. “28 Places to See Before You Die.” Smithsonian Jan. 2008: 78-93. Print.

Citation: (Editorial Staff of the Smithsonian 123)

No Author – Review

Rev. of Anthology of Danish Literature, by F. J. Billeskov Jansen and P. M. Mitchell. Times Literary Supplement 7 July 1972: 785. Print.

Citation (no author): (Rev. of Anthology of Danish Literature 123)

Newspaper & Magazine Articles

Curry, Andrew. “Trekking Hadrian’s Wall.” Smithsonian Oct. 2009: 40-47. Print.

“Feds Close Vail Logging Road.” Colorado Daily [Boulder] 27–29 July 1999: 2. Print.

Hall, Trish. “IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why.” New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+. Print.

NB> If the locale of a publication is not evident from its name and likely to be unfamiliar to readers add that information in brackets.

Reviews

Camhi, Leslie. “Art of the City.” Rev. of New York Modern: The Arts and the City, by William B. Scott, and Peter M. Rutkoff. Village Voice 15 June 1999: 154. Print.

NB> A review may have a title different from the work being reviewed. That title goes in quotes.

 

Books & Compilations 

Compilations combine features of references to articles and to books. When referencing a part of a compilation the title of the part goes in quotes, the title of the compilation is in italics. Both titles are in heading caps: page numbers are required.

Anthology/Compilation – Reprint/Translation

Hemingway, Ernest. “The Big Two-Hearted River.” The Nick Adams Stories. Ed. Philip Young. New York: Bantam Books, 1973. 159-180. Print.

Jung, Carl G. “On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry.” The Portable Jung. Ed. Joseph Campbell. Trans., R. F. C. Hull. New York: Viking-Penguin Books, 1971. Print.

Whitman, Walt. Complete Poetry and Selected Prose. 1891-1892. Ed. James E. Miller, Jr. Boston: Houghton, 1959. Print.

One Author: Translation-Initials/Editor

Eco, Umberto. The Name of the Rose. Trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt, 1983. Print.

Tolkien, J[ohn] R[onald] R[euel]. The Silmarillion. Ed. Christopher Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. Print.

Citations: (Eco 123); (Tolkien 123)

NB> “You may spell out a name abbreviated [to initials] . . . if you think the additional information will be helpful to readers” (MLA 149).

Two Authors

Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage, 1977. Print.

Three Authors – Edition Other Than First

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.

Corporate Author: Government Publication-Edition Other Than First

Bureau of the Census. “Higher Education Price Indexes: 1965-1991.” Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1993. 113th ed. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1993. Table 277. Print.

Multiple Works by One Author

Follett, Ken. Lie Down with Lions. New York: Signet, 1986. Print.

—. The Pillars of the Earth. New York: Signet, 1990. Print.

Citations (Follett, Lie Down 123); (Follett, Pillars 123)

NB> A 3-em dash is used to list multiple works by the same author after the first reference.

Title as Author (No Author)

The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

Citation:  (MLA Handbook 123)

Edited Book

Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Ed. Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.

Friedman, Howard S., ed. Personality and Disease. New York: Wiley, 1990. Print.

Foreword, Afterword, Introduction, Preface

Nicholls, David G. Preface. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. xvii-xix. Print.

Language Other Than English

Hadot, Pierre. Exercices Spirituels et Philosophie Antiques [Spiritual exercises and ancient pholosophies]. 3rd ed. Paris: Institut d’Etudes Augustiniennes, 1993. Print.

Reprint

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. 1958. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998. Print.

NB> The original publication date of a reprint usually goes immediately after the title.

Multivolume Work – Reprint

Burton, Richard F. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah. 2 vols. 1855. New York: Dover, 1964. Print.

Translator as Author

French, R. M., trans. The Way of a Pilgrim and The Pilgrim Continues His Way. New York: Ballantine-Random House, 1974. Print.

Monographs & Reference Works 

Dictionary

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Houghton, 1992. Print.

“Occam’s Razor.” American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Houghton, 1992. Print.

Citation: (American Heritage 123) (“Occam’s Razor” 123)

Dissertation

Pfingstag, Benjamin Nelson. “Aspects of Form and Time in the Paintings of William Henry Mount.” Ph.D dissertation, Graduate School of the State U of NY at Binghamton, 1980. Print.

Encyclopedia

Bergman, Peter G. “Relativity.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Vol. 26. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1998. 501–508. Print.

Government Report

Taylor, Barry N. Guide for the Use of the International System of Units. NIST Special Publication 811. 1995 ed. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, April 1995. PDF File.

Common Nonprint Sources 

Articles in Journals, Magazines, & Newspapers. References to electronic sources follow the same format as those to print sources, with additional information. It is not necessary that  URLs be included in references to online sources. However, if the URL is included it should lead directly to the page. An access date is required with or without a URL in all references where the Web is designated the medium.

Online Journal

Barry, John M. “The Site of Origin of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Public Health Implications.” Commentary. Journal of Translational Medicine 2.3 (20 Jan. 2004): 1-4. Web. 18 Nov. 2005.

Barry, John M. “The Site of Origin of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Public Health Implications.” Commentary. Journal of Translational Medicine 2.3 (20 Jan. 2004): 1-4. Web. 18 Nov. 2005. <http://www.translational-medicine.com/content/2/1/3>.

Bowers, Rick. “Comedy, Carnival, and Class: A Chaste Maid in Cheapside.” Early Modern Literary Studies 8.3 (Jan. 2003): 22 pars. 27 Apr. 2003. <http://purl.oclc.org/emls/08-3/comebowe.htm>.

NB> References to these electronic journals follow MLA notation style in numbering the issue in the respective volumes, 2.3 (volume 2, issue 3) and 8.3. The second has numbered paragraphs in the original.

NB> Line wrap URLs by breaking them after a slash (or before a period). Do not insert a hyphen!

Online Facsimile of a Print Journal

Fine, Gail. “Descartes and Ancient Skepticism: Reheated Cabbage?” Philosophical Review 109 (2000): 195-235. Expanded Academic ASAP. InfoTrac Web. Boulder U Lib. 1 Apr. 2003.

Weber, Wendy, et al. “Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” JAMA 299.22 (2008): 2633-41. PDF File.

Newspaper & Magazine Articles

Adams, Phoebe. Rev. of To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. The Atlantic Monthly Aug. 1960. Web. 27 Apr. 2003 <http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/classrev/mocking.htm>.

Cordi, Margaret. “Weekly Review.” Harpers Apr. 2003. Web. 27 Apr. 2003 <http://www.harpers.org/ weekly-review/>.

“Don’t Spoil the Sunset.” Editorial. Washington Post 27 Apr. 2003. Web. 27 Apr. 2003 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A42817-2003Apr26?language=printer>.

Jonsson, Patrick. “A Bill of Rights, Looted Long Ago, is Stolen Back.” The Christian Science Monitor 22 Apr. 2003. Web. 27 Apr. 2003 <http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0422/p01s01-usgn.htm>.

Sterritt, David. “Coppola, ‘Apocalypse Now,’ and the Ambivalent 70’s.” Rev. of Apocalypse Now, Francis Ford Coppola, dir. The Chronicle of Higher Education 3 Aug. 2001. Web. 27 Apr. 2003 <http://chronicle.com/ weekly/v47/i47/47b01801.htm>.

Books & Compilations. There is a vast amount of classical literature no longer protected by copyright laws. The more familar works are readily available in print, but some works are quite rare. If these works are also available in a print edition it may be helpful to note that if the information is readily available. Some of the information shown in the sample references may not be readily. The objective of any reference is to lead the interested reader to the source. The title and URL may meet that basic need.

Book Online

Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. 1854. EServer.org: Accessible Writing. Ed. Richard Lenat. 2002. U of Washington, Seattle. Web. 30 Jan. 2003 <http://eserver.org/thoreau/walden00.htm>.

Part of a Compilation

Thoreau, Henry David. “Life Without Principle.” The Thoreau Reader: The Works of Henry David Thoreau, 1817-1862. Ed. Richard Lenat. EServer.org: Accessible Writing; University of Washington, Seattle, 2002. Web. 30 Jan. 2003 <http://eserver.org/thoreau/lifewout.htm>.

Citations: (Thoreau, Walden 123); (Thoreau, “Life” 123)

Web Source with Print Publication

Rolt, C[larence] E[dwin], and Pseudo-Dionysius. Dionysius the Areopagite: On the Divine Names and the Mystical Theology. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 1997. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Web. 7 Dec. 2007.

Rolt, C[larence] E[dwin], and Pseudo-Dionysius. Dionysius the Areopagite: On the Divine Names and the Mystical Theology. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 1997. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Calvin College, 5 May 2003. Web. 7 Dec. 2007. <http://www.ccel.org/r/rolt/dionysius>.

NB> “If the nonperiodical work you are citing also appeared in print, you may determine that it is important [or useful] to include the bibliographic data for the print publication” (MLA 187).

Monographs, Reports, & Websites

Dr. Abel Scribe PhD. MLA (Style) Lite for Research Papers. Fall 2009. PDF file.

Dr. Abel Scribe PhD. MLA (Style) Lite for Research Papers. Fall 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. <http://www.docstyles.com/mlacrib.htm>.

Dr. Abel Scribe PhD. “Research Writing Test.” Dr. Abel Scribe’s Guides to Research Style and Documentation. Dr. Abel Scribe PhD, 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. <http://www.docstyles.com/write.htm>.

“Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format.” OWL: Online Writing Lab. Ed. Jennifer Liethen Kunka, Joe Barbato, and Erin Karper. Purdue U., Dec. 2000. Web. 25 Apr. 2003.

“Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format.” OWL: Online Writing Lab. Ed. Jennifer Liethen Kunka, Joe Barbato, and Erin Karper. Purdue U., Dec. 2000. Web. 25 Apr. 2003. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ handouts/print/research/r mla.htm>.

Walt Whitman Hypertext Archive. Ed. Kenneth M. Price and Ed Folsom. 1997-1998. 27 Apr. 2003. <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/archive1/works/leaves/1891/text/fulltext.htm>.

Works of Art & Performance 

Performance/Recording

Beethoven, Ludwig van. “Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92.” Perf. Boston Symphony Orch. Cond. Leonard Bernstein. Bernstein: The Final Concert. Rec. 19 Aug. 1990. Deutsche Grammophon, 1992. Audiocassette.

Boskovsky, Willi, cond. Neujahr in Wien [New Year in Vienna]: 1963-1979. Weiner Philharmoniker, 1963-1979. Deutsche Grammophon, 2004. DVD.

Strauss, Johann, II. “Freut euch des Lebens.” Neujahrskonzet, 1974. Perf. Weiner Philharmoniker. Cond. Willi Boskovsky. Philharmonic Hall, Vienna. 1 Jan. 1974. Performance.

Dances with Wolves. Dir. Kevin Costner. Perf. Kevin Costner, Mary McDonnell, Graham Greene, Rodney A. Grant. Orion, 1990. Videocassette.

Graham Greene, perf. Dances with Wolves. Dir. Kevin Costner. Orion, 1990. Videocassette.

Pink Floyd. The Dark Side of the Moon. 1973. Capitol Records, 1986. Audiocassette.

—.  “Any Colour You Like.” The Dark Side of the Moon. 1973. Capitol Records, 1986. Audiocassette.

Play/ Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. New York: Dover, 1989. Print.

Visual Art

Rembrandt van Rijn. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer. 1653. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

 

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